Abstract The short-term effects of temperature and free ammonia (FA) on ammonium oxidization were investigated in this study by operating several batch tests with two different partial nitrification aggregates, formed as either granules or flocs. The results showed that the rate of ammonium oxidation in both cultures increased significantly as temperature increased from 10 to 30℃. The specific ammonium oxidation rate with the granules was 2-3 times higher than that with flocs at the same temperature. Nitrification at various FA concentrations and temperatures combination exhibited obvious inhibition in ammonium oxidation rate when FA was 90 mg·L-1 and temperature dropped to 10℃ in the two systems. However, the increase in substrate oxidation rate of ammonia at 30℃ was observed. The results suggested that higher reaction temperature was helpful to reduce the toxicity of FA. Granules appeared to be more tolerant to FA attributed to the much fraction of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and higher resistance to the transfer of ammonia into the bacterial aggregates, whereas in the floc system, the bacteria distributed throughout the entire aggregate. These results may contribute to the applicability of the nitrifying granules in wastewater treatment operated at high ammonium concentration.
Fund: Supported by the Project of Scientific Research Base and Scientific Innovation Platform of Beijing Municipal Education Commission;National Key Science and Technology Special Projects
Cite this article:
WU Lei,PENG Yongzhen,MA Yong et al. The Short-term Effects of Temperature and Free Ammonia on Ammonium Oxidization in Granular and Floccular Nitrifying System*[J]. Chin.J.Chem.Eng., 2012, 20(5): 1016-1023.
1 Chung,J.,Shim,H.,Park,S.J.,Kim,S.J.,Bae,W.,"Optimization of free ammonia concentration for nitrite accumulation in shortcut biological nitrogen removal process",Bioprocess.Biosyst.Eng.,28,275-282 (2006). 2 Kim,J.H.,Guo,X.J.,Park,H.S.,"Comparison study of the effects of temperature and free ammonia concentration on nitrification and nitrite accumulation",Process.Biochem.,43,154-160 (2008). 3 Adav,S.S.,Chen,M.Y.,Lee,D.J.,Ren,N.Q.,"Degradation of phenol by aerobic granules and isolated yeast Candida tropicalis",Biotechnol.Bioeng.,96,844-852 (2007). 4 Liu,Y.,Tay,J.H.,"State of the art of biogranulation technology for wastewater treatment",Biotechnol.Adv.,22,533-563 (2004). 5 Adav,S.S.,Lee,D.J.,Show,K.Y.,Tay,J.H.,"Aerobic granular sludge: Recent advances",Biotechnol.Adv.,26,411-423 (2008). 6 Shi,X.Y.,Sheng,G.P.,Li,X.Y.,Yu,H.Q.,"Operation of a sequencing batch reactor for cultivating autotrophic nitrifying granules",Bioresour.Technol.101,2960-2964 (2010). 7 Ni,B.J.,Xie,W.M.,Liu,S.G.,Yu,H.Q.,Wang,Y.Z.,Wang,G.,Dai,X.L.,"Granulation of activated sludge in a pilot-scale sequencing batch reactor for the treatment of low-strength municipal wastewater",Water Res.,43,751-761 (2009). 8 Moy,B.Y.P.,Tay,J.H.,Toh,S.K.,Liu,Y.,Tay,S.T.L.,"High organic loading influences the physical characteristics of aerobic sludge granules",Lett.Appl.Microbiol.,34,407-412 (2002). 9 Zhou,Y.,Pijuan,M.,Yuan,Z.G.,"Free nitrous acid inhibition on anoxic phosphorus uptake and denitrification by poly-phosphate accumulating organisms",Biotechnol.Bioeng.,98,903-912 (2007). 10 Benyahia,F.,Polomarkaki,R.,"Mass transfer and kinetic studies under no cell growth conditions in nitrification using alginate gel immobilized Nitrosomonas",Process Biochem.,40,1251-1262 (2005). 11 Guo,J.H.,Peng,Y.Z.,Huang,H.J.,Wang,S.Y.,Ge,S.J.,Zhang,J.R.,Wang,Z.W.,"Shortand long-term effects of temperature on partial nitrification in a sequencing batch reactor treating domestic wastewater",J.Hazard.Mater.,179,471-479 (2010). 12 Turk,O.,Mavinic,D.S.,"Maintaining nitrite buildup in a system acclimated to free ammonia",Water Res.,23,1383-1388 (1989). 13 Anthonisen,A.C.,Loehr,R.C.,Prakasam,T.B.S.,Srinath,E.G.,"Inhibition of nitrification by ammonia and nitrous-acid",Journal Water Pollution Control Federation,48,835-852 (1976). 14 Neufeld,R.D.,Hill,A.J.,Adekoya,D.O.,"Phenol and free ammonia inhibition to nitrosomonas activity",Water Res.,14,1695-1703 (1980). 15 Li,L.Y.,Peng,Y.Z.,Wu,L.,Wang,S.Y.,Ma,Y.,"Cultivation and characteristics analysis of nitrifying granules in sequencing batch reactor",J.Civ.Environ.Architect.Eng.,32,119-123 (2010). 16 Guo,J.,Peng,Y.Z.,Wang,S.Y.,Zheng,Y.A.,Huang,H.J.,Wang,Z.W.,"Long-term effect of dissolved oxygen on partial nitrification performance and microbial community structure",Bioresour.Technol.,100,2796-2802 (2009). 17 APHA,Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater,Greenburg,A.E.,Clesceri,L.S.,Eation,A.D.,ed.,18th American Public Health Association,American Water Works Association and Water Environment Federation,Washington DC (1992). 18 Amann,R.I.,"In situ identification of micro-organisms by whole cell hybridization with rRNA-targeted nucleic acid probes",Molecular Microbial Ecology Manual,Kluwer Academic Publishers,Netherland (1995). 19 Wang,J.L.,Yang,N.,"Partial nitrification under limited dissolved oxygen conditions",Process.Biochem.,39,1223-1229 (2004). 20 Bae,W.,Baek,S.,Chung,J.,Lee,Y.,"Optimal operational factors for nitrite accumulation in batch reactors",Biodegradation.,12,359-366 (2001). 21 Charley,R.C.,Hooper,D.G.,McLee,A.G.,"Nitrification kinetics in activated-sludge at various temperatures and dissolved-oxygen concentrations",Water Res.,14,1387-1396 (1980). 22 Randall,C.W.,Benefield,L.D.,Buth,D.,"The effects of temperature on the biochemical reaction-rate of the activated-sludge process",Water Sci.Technol.,14,413-430 (1982). 23 Painter,H.A.,Loveless,J.E.,"Effect of temperature and pH value on the growth-rate constants of nitrifying bacteria in the activated-suldge process",Water Res.,17,237-248 (1983). 24 Wijffels,R.H.,Englund,G.,Hunik,J.H.,Leenen,E.,Bakketun,A.,Gunther,A.,Decastro,J.M.O.,Tramper,J.,"Effects of diffusion limitation on immobilized nitrifying microorganisms at low-temperatures",Biotechnol.Bioeng.,45,1-9 (1995). 25 Weon,S.Y.,Lee,S.I.,Koopman,B.,"Effect of temperature and dissolved oxygen on biological nitrification at high ammonia concentrations",Environ.Technol.25,1211-1219 (2004). 26 Simm,R.A.,Mavinic,D.S.,Ramey,W.D.,"A targeted study on possible free ammonia inhibition of Nitrospira",J.Environ.Eng.Sci.,5,365-376 (2006). 27 Yang,S.F.,Tay,J.H.,Liu,Y.,"Inhibition of free ammonia to the formation of aerobic granules",Biochem.Eng.J.,17,41-48 (2004). 28 Carrera,J.,Jubany,I.,Carvallo,L.,Chamy,R.,Lafuente,J.,"Kinetic models for nitrification inhibition by ammonium and nitrite in a suspended and an immobilised biomass systems",Process.Biochem.,39,1159-1165 (2004). 29 Mahne,I.,Princic,A.,Megusar,F.,"Nitrification/denitrification in nitrogen high-strength liquid wastes",Water Res.,30,2107-2111 (1996). 30 Hunik,J.H.,Meijer,H.J.G.,Tramper,J.,"Kinetica of nitrosomonas-europaea at extreme substrate,product and salt concentrations",Appl.Microbiol.Biotechnol.,37,802-807 (1992). 31 Martins,A.M.P.,Pagilla,K.,Heijnen,J.J.,van Loosdrecht,M.C.M.,"Filamentous bulking sludge-A critical review",Water Res.,38,793-817 (2004). 32 Tay,J.H.,Ivanov,V.,Pan,S.,Tay,S.T.L.,"Specific layers in aerobically grown microbial granules",Lett.Appl.Microbiol.,34,254-257 (2002).