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1. Continuous, homogeneous and rapid synthesis of 4-bromo-3-methylanisole in a modular microreaction system
Pei Xie, Kai Wang, Jian Deng, Guangsheng Luo
中国化学工程学报    2020, 28 (8): 2092-2098.   DOI: 10.1016/j.cjche.2020.06.001
摘要336)      PDF(pc) (1723KB)(104)    收藏
4-Bromo-3-methylanisole is mainly used to synthesize black fluorane dye (2-anilino-3-methyl-6- dibutylaminofluorane, ODB-2), which is one of the most important heat and pressure-sensitive dyes in the manufacture of thermal papers. Compared to the industrial heterogeneous batch process, a continuous homogeneous bromination technology in a modular microreaction system has been developed, and 4-bromo-3-methylanisole has been successfully prepared through high-selective mono-bromination of 3-methylanisole with Br2 solution in CHCl3. In optimal conditions, the content of bis-brominated byproducts can be controlled less than 0.5%, which is superior to the industrial standard with 99.5% 3-methylanisole conversion at very short residence time and mild reaction temperature.
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2. Numerical simulations and comparative analysis of two- and three-dimensional circulating fluidized bed reactors for CO2 capture
Yefeng Zhou, Yifan Han, Yujian Lu, Hongcun Bai, Xiayi Hu, Xincheng Zhang, Fanghua Xie, Xiao Luo, Jingdai Wang, Yongrong Yang
中国化学工程学报    2020, 28 (12): 2955-2967.   DOI: 10.1016/j.cjche.2020.07.003
摘要201)      PDF(pc) (4949KB)(217)    收藏
Carbon dioxide (CO2), the main gas emitted from fossil burning, is the primary contributor to global warming. Circulating fluidized bed reactor (CFBR) is proved as an energy-efficient method for post-combustion CO2 capture. The numerical simulation by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is believed as a promising tool to study CO2 adsorption process in CFBR. Although three-dimensional (3D) simulations were proved to have better predicting performance with the experimental results, two-dimensional (2D) simulations have been widely reported for qualitative and quantitative studies on gas-solid behavior in CFBR for its higher computational efficiency recently. However, the discrepancies between 2D and 3D simulations have rarely been evaluated by detailed study. Considering that the differences between the 2D and 3D simulations will vary substantially with the changes of independent operating conditions, it is beneficial to lower computational costs to clarify the effects of dimensionality on the numerical CO2 adsorption runs under various operating conditions. In this work, the comparative analysis for CO2 adsorption in 2D and 3D simulations was conducted to enlighten the effects of dimensionality on the hydrodynamics and reaction behaviors, in which the separation rate, species distribution and hydrodynamic characteristics were comparatively studied for both model frames. With both accuracy and computational costs considered, the viable suggestions were provided in selecting appropriate model frame for the studies on optimization of operating conditions, which directly affect the capture and energy efficiencies of cyclic CO2 capture process in CFBR.
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3. Advanced development in upstream of petroleum industry using nanotechnology
Sedigheh Sadegh Hassani, Maryam Daraee, Zahra Sobat
中国化学工程学报    2020, 28 (6): 1483-1491.   DOI: 10.1016/j.cjche.2020.02.030
摘要132)      PDF(pc) (974KB)(23)    收藏
Nowadays, energy supply is one of the most important issues due to limitation of oil, gas and coal sources. Because of rapid population, civilization and energy consumption growth, the improved technologies to make optimal use of the sources, solving related problems and finding new energy sources are important. More than 10 years ago, nanotechnology as one of the most important technologies has also been applied to progress in the oil and gas industry (upstream, midstream and downstream). The experience of these years has shown that application of nanotechnology in the oil industry improves the exploration of crude oil and natural gas (underground or deep water), drilling and bringing the crude oil or raw natural gas to the surface, as well as transportation, storage, processing and purifying methods. Nanoparticles with high specific surface area, pore volume and small size show unique physical and chemical properties, which could be applied in several applications. In this regard, many researchers have been focused on various nanoparticles for upstream industries and studied their potential in oil exploration, drilling, production and enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Also, in downstream and midstream which involve refining of crude oil, processing and purifying of raw natural gas, transportation and storage of crude or refined petroleum products, the nanomaterials have been used to improve the quality of oil and make it appropriate for the environment. Lowering sulfur gasoline, enhancing the octane number and coating the transportation system are among the goals that have been achieved successfully using nanotechnology. In this work, various types of nanoparticles such as metallic, metal oxide, hybrid nanoparticles, carbon nanomaterials, nano-composites and their applications in oil upstream industry are reviewed. Also, their usage in different types of oil upstream processes is discussed.
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4. The application of molecular simulation in ash chemistry of coal
Xin Dai, Jin Bai, Ping Yuan, Shiyu Du, Dongtao Li, Xiaodong Wen, Wen Li
中国化学工程学报    2020, 28 (11): 2723-2732.   DOI: 10.1016/j.cjche.2020.06.024
摘要123)      PDF(pc) (2205KB)(106)    收藏
One of the crucial issues in modern ash chemistry is the realization of efficient and clean coal conversion. Industrially, large-scale coal gasification technology is well known as the foundation to improve the atom economy. In practice, the coal ash fusibility is a critical factor to determine steady operation standards of the gasifier, which is also the significant criterion to coal species selection for gasification. Since coal behaviors are resultant from various evolutions in different scales, the multi-scale understanding of the ash chemistry is of significance to guide the fusibility adjustment for coal gasification. Considering important roles of molecular simulation in exploring ash chemistry, this paper reviews the recent studies and developments on modeling of molecular systems for fusibility related ash chemistry for the first time. The discussions are emphasized on those performed by quantum mechanics and molecular mechanics, the two major simulation methods for microscopic systems, which may provide various insights into fusibility mechanism. This review article is expected to present comprehensive information for recent molecular simulations of coal chemistry so that new clues to find strategies controlling the ash fusion behavior can be obtained.
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5. Recent progress in enzymatic functionalization of carbon-hydrogen bonds for the green synthesis of chemicals
Zheyu Wang, Yupei Jian, Yilei Han, Zhongwang Fu, Diannan Lu, Jianzhong Wu, Zheng Liu
中国化学工程学报    2020, 28 (10): 2499-2506.   DOI: 10.1016/j.cjche.2020.06.040
摘要119)      PDF(pc) (2125KB)(77)    收藏
Enzymatic reactions take place with high chemo-, regio-, and stereo-selectivity, appealing for the direct functionalization of abundant and inexpensive compounds with C-H bonds to make fine chemicals such as high-value intermediates and pharmaceuticals. This review summarizes recent progress in the enzymatic functionalization of C-H bonds with an emphasis on heme enzymes such as cytochrome P450s, chloroperoxidase and unspecific peroxygenases. Specific examples are discussed to elucidate the applications of the molecular and process engineering approaches to overcome the challenges hindering enzymatic C-H functionalization. Also discussed is the recent development of the chemo-enzymatic cascade as an effective way to integrate the power of metal catalysis and enzymatic catalysis for C-H functionalization.
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6. The synthetic strategies of hierarchical TS-1 zeolites for the oxidative desulfurization reactions
Guoju Yang, Ji Han, Yue Liu, Ziyi Qiu, Xiaoxin Chen
中国化学工程学报    2020, 28 (9): 2227-2234.   DOI: 10.1016/j.cjche.2020.06.026
摘要115)      PDF(pc) (3907KB)(115)    收藏
With the increasingly stringent standards for limiting sulfide content in liquid fuels, oxidative desulfurization (ODS) has become a promising ultra-deep desulfurization process in fuel desulfurization. TS-1 zeolites show great potential as catalysts for ODS reactions, due to its remarkable oxidation activity at low temperatures and pressure. However, the inherent microporous structure of conventional TS-1 zeolites restricts the mass transportation and renders the active sites in the microporous space of TS-1 zeolites inaccessible for bulky aromatic organosulfur compounds. Fabrication of hierarchical TS-1 zeolites by incorporating meso-/macropores into microporous TS-1 zeolites is an effective strategy to improve mass transportability. In recent years, abundant efforts have been dedicated to developing synthetic strategies of hierarchical TS-1 zeolite, thereby improving its catalytic performance in the ODS process. This mini-review addresses the synthetic methods of hierarchical TS-1 catalysts and their catalytic performance in the ODS reactions. In addition, some current problems and prospects of synthesis routes for constructing hierarchical TS-1 catalysts have also been revised. We expect this mini-review to shed light on the more efficient preparation strategies of hierarchical TS-1 zeolites for the ODS process.
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7. Numerical simulation of micro-mixing in gas-liquid and solid-liquid stirred tanks with the coupled CFD-E-model
Xiaoxia Duan, Xin Feng, Chong Peng, Chao Yang, Zaisha Mao
中国化学工程学报    2020, 28 (9): 2235-2247.   DOI: 10.1016/j.cjche.2020.06.016
摘要104)      PDF(pc) (3970KB)(95)    收藏
The coupled CFD-E-model for multiphase micro-mixing was developed, and used to predict the micro-mixing effects on the parallel competing chemical reactions in semi-batch gas-liquid and solid-liquid stirred tanks. Based on the multiphase macro-flow field, the key parameters of the micro-mixing E-model were obtained with solving the Reynolds-averaged transport equations of mixture fraction and its variance at low computational costs. Compared with experimental data, the multiphase numerical method shows the satisfactory predicting ability. For the gas-liquid system, the segregated reaction zone is mainly near the feed point, and shrinks to the exit of feed-pipe when the feed position is closer to the impeller. Besides, surface feed requires more time to completely exhaust the added H+ solution than that of impeller region feed at the same operating condition. For the solid- liquid system, when the solid suspension cloud is formed at high solid holdups, the flow velocity in the clear liquid layer above the cloud is notably reduced and the reactions proceed slowly in this almost stagnant zone. Therefore, the segregation index in this case is larger than that in the dilute solid-liquid system.
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8. Graphene-based membranes for pervaporation processes
Kecheng Guan, Gongping Liu, Hideto Matsuyama, Wanqin Jin
中国化学工程学报    2020, 28 (7): 1755-1766.   DOI: 10.1016/j.cjche.2020.04.011
摘要102)      PDF(pc) (3293KB)(32)    收藏
Two-dimensional graphene and its derivatives exhibiting distinct physiochemical properties are intriguing building blocks for researchers from a large variety of scientific fields. Assembling graphene-based materials into membrane layers brings great potentials for high-efficiency membrane processes. Particularly, pervaporation by graphene-based membranes has been intensively studied with respect to the membrane design and preparation. This review aims to provide an overview on the graphene-based membranes for pervaporation processes ranged from fabrication to application. Physical or chemical decoration of graphene-based materials is elaborated regarding their effects on the microstructure and performance. The mass transport of pervaporation through graphene-based membranes is introduced, and relevant mechanisms are described. Furthermore, performances of state-of-the-art graphene-based membranes for different pervaporation applications are summarized. Finally, the perspectives of current challenges and future directions are presented.
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9. CFD investigation of the agitation in the desupersaturation during the wet-process phosphoric acid (WPPA) process
Asmaa Hadane, Lhachmi Khamar, Saad Benjelloun, Abderrahman Nounah, Mohammed Khamar
中国化学工程学报    2020, 28 (8): 2064-2074.   DOI: 10.1016/j.cjche.2020.03.041
摘要100)      PDF(pc) (4618KB)(69)    收藏
Desupersaturation is a complex cooling operation that involves hydrodynamic, thermal and mechanical phenomena. This process requires continuous agitation to avoid fouling problems and sludge deposition. The current work aims to investigate the well mixedness in the desupersaturation tank for optimal performance. For this purpose, a multi-fluid CFD study was conducted based on the Euler-Euler modeling approach, considering a multiphase flow involving a liquid phase (phosphoric acid) and a poly-dispersed solid phase, i.e. a sludge with three different sizes where each size is considered as a separate phase. First, the hydrodynamic behavior of the flow within the agitated desupersaturator is analyzed through the investigation of the velocity fields as well as the power and pumping numbers, to determine both the agitator capacity to pump the flow and its power consumption during the operation. Then, in order to assess the mixture homogeneity, we evaluated the solid suspension in the desupersaturation reactor following conventional methods and two new proposed methodologies: the first approach is to evaluate the suspension quality in the mixing system by compartment and the second consists on the assessment of the uniform convergence of the solid concentration. Furthermore, we calculated the time required to achieve a full suspension at different solid concentrations. On other hand, we conducted a detailed analysis of the solid distribution dependency on the impeller rotational speed at different solid volume fraction, which allows a good understanding of the parameters controlling the homogenization in the desupersaturator.
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10. A review on single bubble gas–liquid mass transfer
Yuyun Bao, Jinting Jia, Shuaifei Tong, Zhengming Gao, Ziqi Cai
中国化学工程学报    2020, 28 (11): 2707-2722.   DOI: 10.1016/j.cjche.2020.07.037
摘要98)      PDF(pc) (1523KB)(109)    收藏
It is common to empirically correlate volumetric mass transfer coefficient kLa for predicting gas-liquid mass transfer in industrial applications, and the investigation of single bubble mass transfer is crucial for a detailed understanding of mass transfer mechanism. In this work, experiments, models and simulations based on the experimental results were highlighted to elucidate the mass transfer between single bubbles and ambient liquid. The experimental setups, measurement methods, the mass transfer of single bubbles in the Newtonian and the nonNewtonian liquid, models derived from the concept of eddy diffusion, the extension of Whitman's, Higbie's and Danckwerts' models, or dimensionless numbers, and simulation methods on turbulence, gas-liquid partition methods and mass transfer source term determination are introduced and commented on. Although people have a great knowledge on mass transfer between single bubbles and ambient liquid in single conditions, it is still insufficient when facing complex liquid conditions or some phenomena such as turbulence, contamination or non-Newtonian behavior. Additional studies on single bubbles are required for experiments and models in various liquid conditions in future.
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11. Influence of slug flow on flow fields in a gas-liquid cylindrical cyclone separator: A simulation study
Xiaoming Luo, Jing Ren, Tong Chen, Yibin Wang, Yuling Lü, Limin He
中国化学工程学报    2020, 28 (8): 2075-2083.   DOI: 10.1016/j.cjche.2020.03.026
摘要92)      PDF(pc) (2610KB)(144)    收藏
A simulation method for slug flow based on the VOF multiphase flow model was implemented in ANSYS® Fluent via a user-defined function (UDF) and applied to the dissipation of liquid slugs in the inlet pipe of a gas-liquid cylindrical cyclone (GLCC) separator while varying the expanding diameter ratio and angle of inclination. The dissipation of liquid slug in inlet pipe is analyzed under different expanding diameter ratios and inclination angles. In the inlet pipe, it is found that increasing expanding diameter ratio and inclination angle can reduce the liquid slug stability and enhancing the effect of gravity, which is beneficial to slug flow dissipation. In the cylinder, increasing the expanding diameter ratio can significantly reduce the liquid carrying depth of the gas phase but result in a slightly increase of the gas content in the liquid phase space. Moreover, increasing the inclination angle results in a decrease in the carrying depth of liquid in the vapor phase, but enhances gas-liquid mixing and increases the gas-carrying depth in the liquid phase. Taking into consideration the dual effects of slug dissipation in the inlet pipe and carrying capacity of gas/liquid spaces in the cylinder, the optimal expanding diameter ratio and inclination angle values can be determined.
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12. Mesoporous tablet-shaped potato starch aerogels for loading and release of the poorly water-soluble drug celecoxib
Akbar Mohammadi, Jafarsadegh Moghaddas
中国化学工程学报    2020, 28 (7): 1778-1787.   DOI: 10.1016/j.cjche.2020.03.040
摘要91)      PDF(pc) (3278KB)(11)    收藏
In this study, after determination of the optimal values of the effective parameters in the synthesis using experimental design software, tablet-shaped potato starch aerogels were synthesized at the optimal condition in order to be used as a drug carrier. The celecoxib, as the model drug, was loaded into the aerogel matrix during the solvent exchange step. FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy), FESEM and HRTEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy) analyses showed that celecoxib has been successfully loaded into aerogel matrix. Also, XRD analysis showed that most of the celecoxib has been loaded in amorphous form. In vitro studies were performed in both simulated gastric and intestinal fluids. The release kinetics showed that the loaded celecoxib dissolved faster than crystalline celecoxib. At rotational speed of 100 r·min-1, about 26% and 50% and at rotational speed of 50 r·min-1, about 20% and 42% drug was released during the first 30 min of soaking in the simulated gastric fluid and simulated intestinal fluid, respectively. The release of the mentioned drug was increased up to 60% and 98% at a rotational speed of 100 r·min-1 and up to 46% and 93% at a rotational speed of 50 r·min-1 at the end of 5 h in the simulated gastric fluid and simulated intestinal fluid, respectively. It could be concluded that potato starch aerogels can be very useful in many drug delivery applications along with conventional micronization techniques. Modeling of release data showed that the release kinetics follows the Korsmeyer Peppas model, which considers phenomena of matrix erosion and drug diffusion.
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13. Gas-phase dehydrochlorination of 1, 1, 2, 2-tetrachloroethane over the non-metal supported ionic liquid catalyst
Pengze Zhang, Yangzhen Jin, Zhaobin Jiang, Guanqun Xie, Qunfeng Zhang, Xiaonian Li
中国化学工程学报    2020, 28 (6): 1623-1627.   DOI: 10.1016/j.cjche.2020.03.011
摘要91)      PDF(pc) (1792KB)(8)    收藏
Developing of non-metallic catalyst to replace metal catalyst is a meaningful and challenging direction. In this work, the non-metallic catalyst was synthetized successfully by loading ionic liquid onto the silica surface, which was applied for the gas-phase dehydrochlorination of 1, 1, 2, 2-tetrachloroethane. The 12%TPPC/SiO2 (wt%) showed the best results with the conversion of 1, 1, 2, 2-tetrachloroethane reaching 100%. The selectivity of 1, 1, 2-trichloroethylene was 100%, and no deactivation was found during the evaluation period. The catalytic mechanism was investigated and possible reaction route was given, which was a reference for fabricating and design of solid base catalyst.
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14. Bubble size fractal dimension, gas holdup, and mass transfer in a bubble column with dual internals
Xiao Xu, Junjie Wang, Qiang Yang, Lei Wang, Hao Lu, Honglai Liu, Hualin Wang
中国化学工程学报    2020, 28 (12): 2968-2976.   DOI: 10.1016/j.cjche.2020.07.030
摘要91)      PDF(pc) (1904KB)(184)    收藏
As the scale of residual oil treatment increases and cleaner production improves in China, slurry bubble column reactors face many challenges and opportunities for residual oil hydrogenation technology. The internals development is critical to adapt the long-term stable operation. In this paper, the volumetric mass transfer coefficient, gas holdup and bubble size in a gas-liquid up-flow column are studied with two kinds of internals. The gas holdup and volumetric mass transfer coefficient increase by 120% and 42% when the fractal dimension of bubbles increases from 0.56 to 2.56, respectively. The enhanced mass transfer processing may improve the coke suppression ability in the slurry reactor for residual oil treatment. The results can be useful for the exploration of reacting conditions, scale-up strategies, and oil adaptability. This work is valuable for the design of reactor systems and technological processes.
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15. Liquid-solid mass transfer in a rotating packed bed reactor with structured foam packing
Yazhao Liu, Zhi hao Li, Guangwen Chu, Lei Shao, Yong Luo, Jianfeng Chen
中国化学工程学报    2020, 28 (10): 2507-2512.   DOI: 10.1016/j.cjche.2020.06.038
摘要89)      PDF(pc) (1075KB)(98)    收藏
A rotating packed bed (RPB) reactor has substantially potential for the process intensification of heterogeneous catalytic reactions. However, the scarce knowledge of the liquid-solid mass transfer in the RPB reactor is a barrier for its design and scale-up. In this work, the liquid-solid mass transfer in a RPB reactor installed with structured foam packing was experimentally studied using copper dissolution by potassium dichromate. Effects of rotational speed, liquid and gas volumetric flow rate on the liquid-solid mass transfer coefficient (kLS) have been investigated. The correlation for predicting kLS was proposed, and the deviation between the experimental and predicted values was within ±12%. The liquid-solid volumetric mass transfer coefficient (kLSaLS) ranged from 0.04-0.14 1-1, which was approximately 5 times larger than that in the packed bed reactor. This work lays the foundation for modeling of the RPB reactor packed with structured foam packing for heterogeneous catalytic reaction.
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16. Determining axial dispersion coefficients of pilot-scale annular pulsed disc and doughnut columns
Xiong Yu, Han Zhou, Qiang Zheng, Shan Jing, Wenjie Lan, Shaowei Li
中国化学工程学报    2020, 28 (6): 1504-1513.   DOI: 10.1016/j.cjche.2020.03.024
摘要85)      PDF(pc) (3180KB)(32)    收藏
In this study, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method was adopted to calculate axial dispersion coefficients of annular pulsed disc and doughnut columns (APDDCs). Passive tracer was uniformly injected by pulse input at the continuous phase inlet, and its concentration governing equation was solved in liquid-liquidtwo-phase flow fields. The residence time distributions (RTDs) were obtained using the surface monitoring technique. The adopted RTD-CFD method was verified by comparing the axial dispersion coefficient between simulation and experimental results in the literature. However, in pilot-scale APDDCs, the axial dispersion coefficients predicted by the CFD-RTD method were approximately three times larger than experimental results determined by the steady-state concentration profile method. This experimental method was demonstrated to be insensitive to the variation of the axial dispersion coefficient. The CFD-RTD method was more recommended to determine the axial dispersion coefficient. It was found that the axial dispersion coefficient increased with an increase in pulsation intensity, column diameter, and plate spacing, but was little affected by the throughput.
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17. Direct synthesis of single-phase α-CaSO4·0.5H2O whiskers from waste nitrate solution
Shuang Shao, Baozhong Ma, Yongqiang Chen, Wenjuan Zhang, Bao Liu, Peng Xing, Chengyan Wang
中国化学工程学报    2020, 28 (6): 1752-1754.   DOI: 10.1016/j.cjche.2020.04.005
摘要85)      PDF(pc) (1892KB)(5)    收藏
Single-phase α-CaSO4·0.5H2O whiskers were directly synthesized from waste Ca(NO3)2 solution using a hydrothermal method, and HNO3 was synchronously regenerated. The effects of reaction temperature and Ca2+ concentration on the phase composition and morphology of products were determined by X-ray diffraction and optical microscopy. On the basis of the experimental results, the formation diagram of α-CaSO4·0.5H2O was plotted within the range of 5-35 g·L-1 Ca2+ and 115℃-150℃. In addition, the conditions of the direct synthesis of α-CaSO4·0.5H2O were determined. Well-crystallized, single-phase α-CaSO4·0.5H2O whiskers with high aspect ratios (length, 1785 μm; diameter, 10.63 μm; aspect ratio, 168) and HNO3 (70.25 g·L-1) were obtained at the optimal conditions of 25 g·L-1 Ca2+ and 125℃.
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18. Comprehensive evaluation and sensitivity analysis of regeneration energy for acid gas removal plant using single and activated-methyl diethanolamine solvents
Ammar Ali Abd, Samah Zaki Naji, Ahmed Barifcani
中国化学工程学报    2020, 28 (6): 1684-1693.   DOI: 10.1016/j.cjche.2019.12.004
摘要85)      PDF(pc) (2156KB)(10)    收藏
The absorption of acid gas using reactive amines is among the most widely used types of capturing technologies. However, the absorption process requires intensive energy expenditure majorly in the solvent regeneration process. This study simultaneously evaluated the regeneration energy of MDEA and PZ/MDEA solvents in terms of heat of absorption, sensible heat, and vaporization heat. Aspen Hysys version 8.8 simulation tool is applied to model the full acid gas removal plant for the chemical absorption process. The new energy balance technique presents around the absorption and desorption columns to bring a new perspective of energy distribution in the capturing of acid gas plants. Sensitivity analysis of regeneration energy and its three contributors is performed at several operation parameters such as absorber and stripper pressures, lean amine circulation rate, solvent concentration, reflux ratio, and CO2 and H2S concentrations. The results show that the heat of absorption of PZ/MDEA system is higher than that for MDEA system for the same operating conditions. The sensible heat is the main contributor in the required regeneration energy of MDEA solvent system. The simulation results have been validated against data taken from real plant and literature. The product specifications of our simulation corroborate with real plant data in an excellent approach; additionally, the profile temperature of the absorber and the stripper columns are in good agreement with literature. The overall results highlight the direction of the effects of each parameter on the heat of absorption, sensible heat, and vaporization heat.
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19. Perspectives and challenges of hydrogen storage in solid-state hydrides
Zhen Chen, Zhongliang Ma, Jie Zheng, Xingguo Li, Etsuo Akiba, Hai-Wen Li
中国化学工程学报    2021, 29 (1): 1-12.   DOI: 10.1016/j.cjche.2020.08.024
摘要85)      PDF(pc) (2348KB)(135)    收藏
Hydrogen has been widely considered as a clean energy carrier that bridges the energy producers and energy consumers in an efficient and safe way for a sustainable society. Hydrogen can be stored in a gas, liquid and solid states and each method has its unique advantage. Though compressed hydrogen and liquefied hydrogen are mature technologies for industrial applications, appropriate measures are necessary to deal with the issues at high pressure up to around 100 MPa and low temperature at around 20 K. Distinct from those technologies, storing hydrogen in solid-state hydrides can realize a more compact and much safer approach that does not require high hydrogen pressure and cryogenic temperature. In this review, we will provide an overview of the major material groups that are capable of absorbing and desorbing hydrogen reversibly. The main features on hydrogen storage properties of each material group are summarized, together with the discussion of the key issues and the guidance of materials design, aiming at providing insights for new material development as well as industrial applications.
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20. A new long-side-chain sulfonated poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (PPO)/polybenzimidazole (PBI) amphoteric membrane for vanadium redox flow battery
Bowen Jiang, Lei Hu, Xiaoming Yan, Jiahui Sun, Li Gao, Yan Dai, Xuehua Ruan, Gaohong He
中国化学工程学报    2020, 28 (7): 1918-1924.   DOI: 10.1016/j.cjche.2020.03.010
摘要83)      PDF(pc) (1585KB)(11)    收藏
A new amphoteric membrane was prepared by blending long-side-chain sulfonated poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (S-L-PPO) and polybenzimidazole (PBI) for vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) application. An acid-base pair structure formed between the imidazole of PBI and sulfonic acid of S-L-PPO resulted in lowered swelling ratio. It favors to reduce the vanadium permeation. While, the increased sulfonic acid concentration ensured that proton conductivity was still at a high level. As a result, a better balance between the vanadium ion permeation (6.1×10-9 cm2·s-1) and proton conductivity (50.8 mS·cm-1) in the S-L-PPO/PBI-10% membrane was achieved. The VRFB performance with S-L-PPO/PBI-10% membrane exhibited an EE of 82.7%, which was higher than those of pristine S-L-PPO (81.8%) and Nafion 212 (78.0%) at 120 mA·cm-2. In addition, the S-LPPO/PBI-10% membrane had a much longer self-discharge duration time (142 h) than that of Nafion 212 (23 h).
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